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This rise is explained by an increase in intralu- small portion of this HCO3 would lead to acidic blood minal [HCO3 ] caused by water reabsorption order liv 52 100 ml amex. Ammonia is and impair the body’s ability to buffer its daily load of meta- secreted along the descending limb. The kidney tubules have the im- The tubular fluid is acidified by secretion of H along portant task of recovering the filtered HCO3 and return- the ascending limb via a Na /H exchanger. This reabsorbed by the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in the luminal type of graph should be familiar (Fig. Some NH4 the graph is unusual, however, because amounts of HCO3 can be reabsorbed via a luminal plasma membrane K per minute are factored by the GFR. Also, some NH4 can be passively reabsorbed be- in this way because the maximal rate of tubular reabsorp- tween cells in this segment; the driving force is the lumen tion of HCO3 varies with GFR. The amount of HCO3 positive transepithelial electrical potential difference. Am- excreted in the urine per unit time is calculated as the dif- monia may undergo countercurrent multiplication in the ference between filtered and reabsorbed amounts. At low Henle loop, leading to an ammonia concentration gradient plasma concentrations of HCO3 (below about 26 mEq/L), in the kidney medulla. The highest concentrations are at all of the filtered HCO3 is reabsorbed. Decreases in plasma [HCO3 ] Cl- were produced by ingestion of NH Cl and increases were pro- 4 duced by intravenous infusion of a solution of NaHCO3. All the filtered HCO was reabsorbed below a plasma concentration of 3 Collecting duct intercalated cells. The renal regula- and adds HCO to the blood via a basolateral plasma mem- tion of acid-base balance in man. The If the plasma [HCO3 ] is raised to high levels because of secreted H is not excreted because it combines with fil- intravenous infusion of solutions containing NaHCO3 for tered HCO3 that is, indirectly, reabsorbed. There is no example, filtered HCO3 exceeds the reabsorptive capacity net addition of HCO3 to the body in this operation. It is of the tubules and some HCO3 will be excreted in the urine simply a recovery or reclamation process.
This does not form two complete cells buy discount liv 52 60 ml online, that it forms a bulge on the surface of the ovary. Under proper however, because only one cell—the secondary oocyte—gets al- hormonal stimulation (a sudden burst of luteinizing hormone most all of the cytoplasm. The other cell formed at this time be- from the anterior pituitary, triggered by a peak level of estrogen), comes a small polar body (fig. The secondary oocyte enters the second meiotic and extrude its secondary oocyte into the peritoneal cavity near division, but meiosis is arrested at metaphase II and is never the opening of the uterine tube in the process of ovulation (ov-yu˘- completed unless fertilization occurs. Female Reproductive © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Development System Companies, 2001 Chapter 21 Female Reproductive System 731 (a) (b) FIGURE 21. Ovarian cortex Tunica albuginea Ovarian medulla Primordial Maturing follicles follicle Broad ligament FIGURE 21. Female Reproductive © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Development System Companies, 2001 732 Unit 7 Reproduction and Development Fimbriae of uterine tube Knowledge Check 4. Describe the position of the ovaries relative to the uterine tubes and describe the position and functions of the broad Oocyte ligament and mesovarium. Compare the structure of a primordial follicle, primary fol- licle, secondary follicle, and vesicular ovarian follicle. Define ovulation and describe the changes that occur in the ovary following ovulation in a nonfertile cycle. Describe oogenesis and explain why only one mature ovum is produced by this process. Compare the hormonal secretions of the vesicular ovarian Ovary follicle with those of a corpus luteum. SECONDARY SEX ORGANS The uterine tube conducts the zygote to the uterus, where implan- FIGURE 21.
The following are the basic kinds of connective Some mesenchymal-like tissue persists past the embryonic tissues: period in certain sites within the body trusted 60 ml liv 52. Good examples are the undifferentiated cells that surround blood vessels and form fi- A. Loose (areolar) connective tissue Another kind of prenatal connective tissue exists only in 2. Dense regular connective tissue the fetus (the fetal period is from 9 weeks to birth) and is called 3. Dense irregular connective tissue mucous connective tissue or Wharton’s jelly. Cartilage Connective tissue proper has a loose, flexible matrix, frequently 1. Blood (vascular tissue) Wharton’s jelly: from Thomas Wharton, English anatomist, 1614–73 Van De Graaff: Human III. Histology © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition of the Body Companies, 2001 Chapter 4 Histology 91 Pectoralis major muscle Elastic fiber Collagenous fiber Mast cell Fibroblast (b) (c) Paras (a) Fascia FIGURE 4. Fibroblasts Six basic types of connective tissue proper are generally are large, star-shaped cells that produce collagenous (ko˘-laj′e˘- recognized. These tissues are distinguished by the consistency of nus), elastic, and reticular (re˘-tik′yoo-lar) fibers. Collagenous the ground substance and the type and arrangement of the rein- fibers are composed of a protein called collagen (kol′a˘-jen); they forcement fibers. Elastic fibers are composed of a protein called elastin, which provides certain tis- Loose Connective (Areolar) Tissue sues with elasticity. Collagenous and elastic fibers may be either Loose connective tissue is distributed throughout the body as a sparse and irregularly arranged, as in loose connective tissue, or binding and packing material. It binds the skin to the underlying tightly packed, as in dense connective tissue.
Objective 2 Identify the arteries that transport blood to the urinary system for filtration buy discount liv 52 60 ml on-line. Abdominal aorta The urinary system, along with the respiratory, digestive, and in- tegumentary systems, excretes substances from the body. For this Ureter reason, these systems are occasionally referred to as excretory sys- tems. In the process of cellular metabolism, nutrients taken in by the digestive system and oxygen from inhaled air are used to syn- thesize a variety of substances while providing energy needed for body maintenance. Metabolic processes, however, produce cellu- lar wastes that must be eliminated if homeostasis is to be main- Urinary bladder tained. Just as the essential nutrients are transported to the cells by the blood, the cellular wastes are removed through the circu- Urethra latory system to the appropriate excretory system. Carbon diox- ide is eliminated through the respiratory system; excessive water, salts, nitrogenous wastes, and even excessive metabolic heat are removed through the integumentary system; and various diges- tive wastes are eliminated through the digestive system. Electrolytes are compounds that neys, two ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Electrolyte balance is achieved when the number of electrolytes entering the body equals the number leaving. Hydrogen ions, for example, are maintained in precise concentration so that an acid-base, or pH, Knowledge Check balance exists in the body. Drawing on your knowledge of the functions of the urinary A second major function of the urinary system is the excre- system, list the basic substances that compose normal urine. Explain the role of the renal vessels in maintaining home- elimination of toxic wastes that may result from bacterial action ostasis. Approximately how much blood is processed in the and the removal of various drugs that have been taken into the kidneys each minute? All of these functions are accomplished through the forma- tion of urine by the kidneys. The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra (fig.