By J. Connor. Baptist Bible College and Seminary.
Foot Ankle Clin 5(1):63-82 buy cheap estradiol 1 mg on line, 2000219(3):802-10 Yu JS (2000) Pathologic and post-operative conditions of the plan- Schweitzer ME, van Leersum M, Ehrlich SS, Wapner K (1994) tar fascia: review of MR imaging appearances. Skeletal Radiol Fluid in normal and abnormal ankle joints: amount and distri- 29(9):491-501 bution as seen on MR images. Am J Roentgenol 162:111-114 Yu JS, Smith G, Ashman C, Kaeding C (1999) The plantar fas- Spitz DJ. Newberg AH (2002) Imaging of stress fractures in the ciotomy: MR imaging findings in asymptomatic volunteers. Marks RM (2000) Imaging of osteochondral lesions of Zanetti M, De Simoni C, Wetz H, Zollinger H, Hodler J (1997) the talus. Foot Ankle Clin 5(1):119-133 Magnetic resonance imaging of injuries to the ankle joint: Can Taniguchi A, Tanaka Y, Takakura Y, Kadono K, Maeda M, it predict clinical outcome? Skeletal Radiol 26:82-88 Yamamoto H (2003) Anatomy of the spring ligament. J Bone Zanetti M, Ledermann T, Zollinger H, Hodler J (1997) Efficacy of Joint Surg Am 85-A:2174-2178 MR imaging in patients suspected of having Morton’s neuro- Taylor JA, Sartoris DJ Juang GS et al (1993) Painful conditions af- ma. Radiographics 13:817-830 Zanetti M, Strehle JK, Kundert H-P, Zollinger H, Hodler J (1999) MR Theodorou DJ, Theodorou SJ, Farooki S et al (2001) Disorders of imaging for suspected Morton’s neuroma: effect on diagnostic the plantar aponeurosis: a spectrum of MR imaging findings. Radiology 213:583-588 Am J Roentgenol 176:97-104 Zanetti M, Metzdorf A, Kundert HP, Zollinger H, Vienne P, Seifert Theodorou DJ, Theodorou SJ, Kakitsubata Y, Lektrakul N, Gold B, Hodler J (2003) Achilles tendons: clinical relevance of neo- GE, Roger B, Resnick D (2000) Plantar fasciitis and fascial vascularization diagnosed with power Doppler US. Radiology rupture: MR imaging findings in 26 patients supplemented 227:556-560 with anatomic data in cadavers. Validation Zeiss J, Fenton P, Ebraheim N, Coombs RJ (1991) Magnetic reso- Studies] Radiographics. Theodorou DJ, Theodorou SJ, Farooki S, Kakitsubata Y, Resnick D Clin Orthop 264-266 (2001) Disorders of the plantar aponeurosis: a spectrum of MR Zeiss J, Fenton P, Ebraheim N, Coombs RJ (1991) Magnetic reso- imaging findings. Am J Roentgenol 176(1):97-104 nance imaging for ineffectual tarsal tunnel surgical treatment. Theumann NH, Pfirrmann CW, Mohana Borges AV, Trudell DJ, Clin Orthop Rel Res (264):264-266 Resnick D (2002) Metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe: Zeiss J, Fenton P, Ebraheim N, Coombs RJ (1990) Normal mag- normal MR, MR arthrographic, and MR bursographic findings netic resonance anatomy of the tarsal tunnel.
The accumulation of fluid linkage galactose distends the small intestine and accelerates peristalsis discount estradiol 1mg, Isomaltase -Limit -1,6-glycosidic Glucose, eventually resulting in watery diarrhea. Sucrase deficiency can be Maltase Maltose, -1,4-glycosidic Glucose inherited or acquired through disorders of the small intes- maltotriose linkage tine, such as tropical sprue or Crohn’s disease. By far Lactic acid production the most abundant dietary lipids are triacylglycerols, or by bacteria triglycerides. They consist of a glycerol backbone esteri- Increased luminal fied in the three positions with fatty acids (Fig. The other lipids in the human diet are cholesterol and Fluid accumulation in lumen phospholipids. Humans also ingest a small amount of plant sterols, notably -sitosterol and campesterol. The phos- Luminal distension pholipid molecule is similar to a triglyceride with fatty acids occupying the first and second positions of the glyc- Enhanced peristalsis erol backbone (Fig. However, the third position of the glycerol backbone is occupied by a phosphate group Watery diarrhea coupled to a nitrogenous base (e. Bile contributes about 12 g/day of phos- pholipid to the intestinal lumen, most in the form of phos- phatidylcholine, whereas dietary sources contribute 2 to 3 Dietary Fiber Plays an Important Role g/day. Another important endogenous source of lipid is desquamated intestinal villus epithelial cells. The most common are cellulose, hemicellulose, Lipid digestion mainly occurs in the lumen of the small in- pectins, and gums. Humans secrete an overabundance of pancreatic li- ble in water and are poorly digested by humans, thus, pro- pase. Depending on the substrate being digested, pancre- viding the bulkiness of stool. It has been proposed that di- the stomach have been neutralized by pancreatic HCO3 etary fiber reduces the incidence of colon cancer by short- secretion.
Along the posterior abdominal cavity cheap estradiol 1 mg fast delivery, the pari- specific functions in preparing food for utilization (table 18. The mesentery so many people are malnourished that eating patterns have supports the GI tract, at the same time allowing the small intes- become a critical public health concern. Grossly overweight people are at greater risk for cardiovas- ture for the passage of intestinal nerves and vessels. People with good nutritional habits are better able to withstand mesocolon is a specific portion of the mesentery that supports trauma, are less likely to get sick, and are usually less seriously ill the large intestine (fig. The peritoneal covering continues around the intestinal viscera as the visceral peritoneum. The peritoneal cavity is the Knowledge Check space between the parietal and visceral portions of the peri- toneum. Which functional activities of the digestive system break peritoneum, and are therefore said to be retroperitoneal. Which functional activities move the food Retroperitoneal organs include most of the pancreas, the kid- through the GI tract? List in order the regions of the GI tract through which in- and the abdominal aorta. Digestive System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Body Companies, 2001 Chapter 18 Digestive System 637 In a female, however, it is not isolated from the outside, which pre- Notochord sents the potential for contamination through the entry of microorgan- Neural tube isms. A fairly common gynecological condition is pelvic inflammatory Aorta disease (PID), which results from the entry of pathogens into the peri- toneal cavity at the sites of the open-ended uterine (fallopian) tubes. Mesentery Parietal peritoneum Gut Peritoneal cavity Layers of the Gastrointestinal Tract Liver Visceral peritoneum The GI tract from the esophagus to the anal canal is composed of four layers, or tunics.
The inherited two recessive alleles for earlobes would have the geno- allele that expresses itself is called the dominant allele discount estradiol 1mg line, the one type ee and would have attached earlobes. The various combinations of Thus, three genotypes are possible when gene pairing in- dominant and recessive alleles are responsible for a person’s volves dominant and recessive alleles. Only In describing genotypes, it is traditional to use letter symbols two phenotypes are possible, however, because the dominant al- to refer to the alleles of an organism. The dominant alleles are sym- lele is expressed in both the homozygous dominant (EE) and bolized by uppercase letters, and the recessive alleles are symbolized the heterozygous (Ee) individuals. Thus, the genotype of a person who is homozygous for pressed only in the homozygous recessive (ee) condition. Refer to free earlobes as a result of a dominant allele is symbolized EE; a figure 22. In both of these instances, the trait may be expressed in a child of parents who are heterozygous. Developmental © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Development Anatomy, Postnatal Companies, 2001 Growth, and Inheritance 784 Unit 7 Reproduction and Development Phenotypes of the parents dark hair dark hair free free earlobes earlobes FIGURE 22. Any of the combinations of genes that have a D and chart, and the female gametes (ova) at the top, as in figure 22. Three of the possible combinations The four spaces on the chart represent the possible combinations have two alleles for attached earlobes (ee) and at least one allele for of male and female gametes that could form zygotes. Three of the combina- bility of an offspring having a particular genotype is 1 in 4 (. These are indicated with a for homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive and 1 in 2 square (I).