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By Q. Vak. Alfred State College, State University of New York College of Technology.

Developments in knowl- raphy as well as mass spectrometry are proving very effective edge within certain key areas of biochemistry cheap elimite 30gm without a prescription, such as protein in separation and analysis of abundant change in highly structure and function, nucleic acid synthesis, enzyme mecha- expressed proteins. The newly developed hardware and soft- nisms, receptors and metabolic control, vitamins, and coen- ware, and the use of automated systems that allow analysis of zymes all contributed to enable such progress to be made. In 1997, the 65 Biodegradable substances WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY Chemistry Prize was shared by three scientists: the American of the components of living matter and the relationships of Paul Boyer and the British J. Walker for their discovery of the biological function to chemical structure; (2) metabolism, the “rotary engine” that generates the energy-carrying compound totality of chemical reactions that occur in living matter; and ATP, and the Danish J. Skou, for his studies of the “pump” that (3) the chemistry of processes and substances that store and drives sodium and potassium across membranes. The third area is also the year, the Prize in Medicine and Physiology went to Stanley province of molecular genetics, a field that seeks to under- Prusiner, for his studies on the prion, the agent thought to be stand heredity and the expression of genetic information in responsible for “mad cow disease” and several similar human molecular terms. Biochemistry is having a profound influence in the Biochemistry draws on its major themes from many field of medicine. For example from organic chemistry, which eases, such as sickle cell anemia and numerous errors of describes the properties of biomolecules; from biophysics, metabolism, have been elucidated. Assays of enzyme activity which applies the techniques of physics to study the struc- are today indispensable in clinical diagnosis. To cite just one tures of biomolecules; from medical research, which increas- example, liver disease is now routinely diagnosed and moni- ingly seeks to understand disease states in molecular terms tored by measurements of blood levels of enzymes called and also from nutrition, microbiology, physiology, cell biol- transaminases and of a hemoglobin breakdown product called ogy and genetics. DNA probes are coming into play in diagnosis of these disciplines but is also a distinct discipline, with its own genetic disorders, infectious diseases and cancers. It is distinctive in its emphasis on the structures and Genetically engineered strains of bacteria containing recom- relations of biomolecules, particularly enzymes and biologi- binant DNA are producing valuable proteins such as insulin cal catalysis, also on the elucidation of metabolic pathways and growth hormone.

He was vice zation of the Emergency Medical Services of president to Robert Jones throughout the 5 years Great Britain in the Second World War buy elimite 30 gm otc, and I had of that memorable leadership; then president him- to compete gently for another orthopedic service self in 1926–1927; and thereafter Emeritus Fel- in the Royal Air Force, could there ever have been low, the first so to be honored. In founder member of the International Society of days of peace did he not hold the greatest second- Orthopedic and Traumatic Surgery, and later vice opinion private practice ever known by reason not president in Bologna and Rome. And, as ident of the orthopedic section of the British if we were not already bound as disciples, could Medical Association at its centenary meeting in he have given more stimulus to those of us who 102 Who’s Who in Orthopedics were young in creating the British volume of The from the French Government. Six months of this Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery than his series time was spent in Baltimore on the service of Pro- of contributions on disorders of bone growth? This had been a life study and a life collection, After his return to Toulouse in 1948, Ficat over which he chuckled happily for so many years turned his attention to orthopedics, becoming the after his deafness commanded retirement from equivalent of associate professor in 1958, profes- active practice, which was then published as a sor in 1962, and professor and chairman in 1970. Paul Ficat made again and, just as he learned it from Arbuthnot this his life’s work, resolving clinical problems Lane, we will again learn it from him because, through critical intraoperative observations, never sooner or later, we will know that the basic pro- missing an opportunity to make a measurement or tection of surgical cutting can never be antibiosis take a biopsy specimen for later evaluation. His operative tech- siologists, anatomists, and histologists were fre- nique was superb, and only the angry young men quent “accessories” to the operating room team. The quality of his work has been recognized by his peers and by the awards that he received, including the Chevalier de l’Ordre Nationale du Merite in 1972 and the Prix Bouchard of the National Academy of Science in 1978. Moreover, his scientific works spanned a wide range of topics, from ligament instability to osteoarthrosis and from chondromalacia patellae to avascular necrosis of bone. To each area he brought not only the perception of the clinician but also the ability to see with the eyes of the physiologist, the micro- scopist, and even the electron microscopist. He was one of the few orthopedic clinicians with the ability to “see” problems at the cellular and sub- cellular level. He was a valued teacher at congresses and universities around the globe. In the few years before his death, his work became better known in the English-speaking world through his publications in English and his presentations at meetings of the Paul FICAT Hip Society, instructional and continuing educa- 1917–1986 tion courses of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, meetings of the Canadian Professor Paul Ficat started his medical career Orthopedic Society, and many universities with during World War II. He was with one bronze star, as well as the Medal of the also a devoted family man, whose four children, Resistance.

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