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By D. Kaelin. Wheaton College, Massachusetts. 2017.

Buzan (1989) suggests that you use an image rather than a word 100 mg amantadine overnight delivery, as this is more evocative and therefore memorable. The student then generates keywords and phrases around this central image using a brainstorming approach. Again pictures and symbols may be used to represent ideas rather than words. ASSESSMENT 189 Look at the example of a mind map about computers in Figure 11. The use of pictures rather than words for many items makes use of ‘visualisation’. This is a memorisation technique where a picture is associ­ ated with a word or idea in order to aid recall. Use mind maps to help you understand your revision notes and aid re­ call of information. Practise Summative assessments have to be completed within a set time period. This presents a challenge to most students regardless of their ability – so start to practise this skill early on in your course. Start by using plans or mind maps you have already generated to write out a full an­ swer. Plan your timing for each section of your essay, and then compare this with the time it actually takes you in your practice session. If you are consistently going over time, you need to identify ways of speeding up: 190 WRITING SKILLS IN PRACTICE ° Can you be more concise in the way that you express yourself?

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Evaluation A questionnaire is developed for completion by a third of students 100mg amantadine visa. It Further reading seeks their views on the teaching process, including the teaching skills x Robson C. London: appropriateness of the teaching material, and opportunities for Routledge, 1994. Outcome measures include comparison x Snell L, Tallett S, Haist S, Hays R, Norcini J, Prince K, et al. A review of examination scores for students in the previous cohort with those of the evaluation of clinical teaching: new perspectives and participating in the teaching session, plus a questionnaire for all challenges. A tenth of students with a interprofessional education:a United Kingdom review of health and social range of scores in the relevant part of the OSCE are interviewed to care. Whatever their reputation, lectures are an efficient means of transferring knowledge and concepts to large groups. They can be used to stimulate interest, explain concepts, provide core knowledge, and direct student learning. However, they should not be regarded as an effective way of teaching skills, changing attitudes, or encouraging higher order thinking. Students receive information but have little opportunity to process or critically appraise the new knowledge offered. How can lectures be used to maximise learning and provide opportunities for student interaction? This article will supply some of the answers and should help you to deliver better, more interactive lectures. Getting your bearings It is important to find out as much as possible about the context A lecturer holds forth. An understanding of the context will allow you to prepare a What you need to know before planning a lecture lecture that is both appropriate and designed to move students on from where they are.

It is readily apparent whether the resident suspects the simulator of not being real buy generic amantadine 100mg on line. It is, in fact, vary rare for a well-trained simulator to be suspected, which is a good confidence booster for both the simulator and trainer. The physical examination Video recording: video recordings can be used to help students develop physical examination skills in much the same way as for interviewing skills. However, it is not quite so effective and direct observation and instruction are generally more appropriate. It is very valuable to have videos which illustrate the recommended way of perform- ing specific components of the examination. These must be readily available to students together with convenient playback facilities. Simulation devices: this is the area where technology has made a major contribution. The number of these devices is increasing rapidly and includes those for cardiac ausculta- tion, breast examination, prostate palpatation, pelvic examination and laryngeal examination. Simulated patients: these can also be used in very much the same way as for history taking, with similar advantages. However, the range of signs that can be simulated is limited, though not as much as you might think. For example, Barrows in his classic book showed that a wide range of neurological conditions can be simulated. In regard to other systems, conditions where pain is the main feature are particularly suitable. Also valuable are simulations of emergency situations such as perforation of a 83 viscus, myocardial infarction and subarachnoid haemorr- hage. Students can be trained to perform rapid assessment and acute management for conditions that otherwise would be impossible to programme. Simulated patient instructors are widely used, particularly in North America, to teach the pelvic examination.

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The computer programme will generally provide statistical data about the examination including a reliability coefficient for internal consistency buy cheap amantadine 100 mg online, a mean and standard deviation for the class and analyses of individual items. Should you be 147 the person responsible for the examination you will need to know how to interpret this information in order to process the examination results and to help improve subsequent examinations. If you are not familiar with these aspects we strongly suggest you seek expert advice or consult one of the books on educational measurement listed at the end of the chapter. DIRECT OBSERVATION Direct observation of the student performing a technical or an interpersonal skill in the real, simulated or examination setting would appear to be the most valid way of assessing such skills. Unfortunately, the reliability of these observa- tions is likely to be seriously low. This is particularly so in the complex interpersonal area where no alternative form of assessment is available. Nevertheless, in professional courses it is essential to continue to make assessments of the student’s performance, not least to indicate to the student your commitment to these vital skills. In doing so, you would be well advised to use the information predominantly for feedback rather than for important decision-making. Various ways have been suggested by which these limitations might be minimised. One it to improve the method of scoring and another is to improve the performance of the observer. Evidence suggests that the reliability of a checklist decreases when there are more than four points on the scale. The assessor has to decide whether each component on the list is present/absent; adequate/inadequate; satisfactory/unsatis- factory. Only if each component is very clearly defined and readily observable can a checklist be reliable. The essential feature is that the observer is required to make a judgement along a scale which may be continuous or intermittent. They are widely used to assess behaviour or performance because no other methods are usually available, but the subjectivity of the assessment is an unavoidable problem.

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He orthopedic surgeon and concluded that he is “a adopted his very own idiosyncratic approach to reliable gentleman amantadine 100mg on-line. Gallen as head of the first orthopedics and trauma clinic in Switzerland, Hardy Weber followed him, taking up the post of Oberarzt; or senior surgeon. Gallen was a 355 Who’s Who in Orthopedics Mecca for AO, which was in its infancy and rev- found his way back in, as a guest speaker among olutionary in those days. Müller, a process With his “Minimax” slogan, in other words, that intensified after his selection as successor to maximum stability with a minimal approach and Müller, in 1967. I, myself, was privileged to metal, he may be regarded as the pioneer of become a part of his enthusiasm for innovative today’s minimally invasive techniques. After the founding genera- the Future” was the last paper that I heard him tion, Hardy Weber was, indeed, the leading expo- present, one in which he explained how total hip nent of AO, both at home and abroad. Gallen Clinic as a Hardy Weber was elected as an honorary trustee guest or as a fellow. Thereafter, Hardy was also of the AO Foundation at their meeting in Oslo. He “the inspiration” for the AO Technical Commis- was really pleased about this, but he would not sion for many years. The Hardy Weber extends to approximately 180 titles, talented teacher was no patriarch. He shared his he found that writing articles was, in his own private income with his Oberarzt colleagues and words “an act of self-gratification” and he was far he tolerated and supported other people’s views more interested in setting out his practical expe- and original ideas, provided that they were well- riences in well-documented books. By nature, he was of a happy disposi- Unfortunately, his books dealing with the clas- tion, but he could really explode when facing sification of malleolar fractures, pseudarthrosis, unfounded criticism. Sport was his hobby and fractures in children, special osteosyntheses and shared causes helped to create the good working external fixators are now out of print, yet they are atmosphere at the St. Hardy still in demand, since they continue to be relevant Weber had many pupils and others who held him and of topical interest. Thanks to his own, novel prosthetic hip system, found his his widow, Alice, I have the personal task of man- way back to metal–metal prostheses and was aging his scientific legacy. This, however, was but one of many honors bestowed upon him from all corners of the globe.

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